Sunday, March 15, 2020

The 19 Best Colleges for Students With Learning Disabilities

The 19 Best Colleges for Students With Learning Disabilities SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Figuring out which colleges you’re interested in is arguably the most difficult part of the college application process. There’s so much information to sift through- how could brief campus visits and informational brochures really tell you where you’ll be most successful? This process is even harder for students with learning disabilities. You want to make sure there are programs in place to help you be the best you can be no matter where you go to school. If you want to apply to colleges for students with learning disabilities, this article is a great place to start your college search. I'll start off by talking about what these specialtyprograms have to offer before getting to the rankings. Afterward, I'll discuss the next steps to take if you decide a learning disability program is right for you. What Makes a College Good for Students With Learning Disabilities? All colleges in the US are required to have a disabilities office, which helps accommodate students with different needs. While disability offices can be helpful for logistical concerns, some students need more of a supportive structure in place in order for them to feel comfortable. All the schools listed below go above and beyond what's required of them when it comes to supporting students with learning disabilities. They offer an array of supportive programs, often operated by learning specialists who are trained in working with students with different needs. Examples of supportive services, programs, and procedures include the following: Weekly meetings with a counselor Reduced course load Extra tutoring support Specialcurricula On-campus learning specialists Individual meetings with educators Transitional summer programs Specialty workshops The schools below offer different combinations of these support services and in different levels of structure. Not all the schools listed will be appropriate for all students with learning disabilities- some offer very high levels of structure and support, whereas others only offer more basic check-ins to make sure you're on track.It might be helpful to think about how much support is ideal for you before you begin your college search. Learning Disability Programs: What These College Rankings Mean Because many of the schools on this list are very different from one another (even though they all offer specialized programs), there aren’t reliable rankings lists available. Each student will have to consider her own unique needs when thinking about which specialized programs would be best for her. To compile this list of schools,I researched the best learning disability programs according to aggregated lists and opinions from the learning disability community. Instead of assigning an arbitrary rank to each school, I organized the colleges by type, which should be more useful. Here, you can learn about programsat schools solely for students for learning disabilities. Or if you want to be part of a learning disability program that’s embedded within a school, you can compare programs at smaller communities with some larger, more well-known ones. Note that most of these learning disability programs come with an additional fee on top of tuition if they're embedded within a college or university. If information about the program cost was available, I included it in the program description. Read on to see the best programs for students with learning disabilities at large and small colleges. Later, I'll go over some schools notable for cateringonlyto students with learning disabilities. Like Goldilocks, you should focus on the right fit for you. Unlike Goldilocks, you won't end up chased from a house by angry bears. Larger Colleges for Students With Learning Disabilities The following learning disability programs are generally found at medium to large colleges. If you want more of a typical college experience but still want the additional support and attention that comes with a specialized program, these might be good options for you. Keep in mind that you'll likely to have to apply to both the college and the learning disability program. American University (Learning Services Program) Washington, DC Based in the Academic Support and Access Center (ASAC), the Learning Services Program (LSP) offers several quality support systems for qualifying students. Enrollees have weekly individual meetings with a program coordinator or counselor and consult with a program coordinator during the summer to discuss registration and course selection. Other benefits include the following: Enrollment in a reserved section of the freshman writing class Weekly meetings with a writing tutor for the freshman writing class Individualized course advising Upperclass student mentor The LSP is a one-year program and has a one-time fee of $4,850. Bellevue College(OLS Degree) Bellevue, WA Bellevue College offers an associate degree in Occupational and Life Skills (OLS) for adult students with learning disabilities. Students in the OLS program spend 10-14 hours per week in the classroom, taking classes in subjects such as workplace problem-solving, healthy relationships, and personal finance. They also complete a 200-hour internship at a local business as part of their graduation requirement. 85% of their graduates are employed. Tuition is $455 per credit. DePaul University (Center for Students with Disabilities) Chicago, IL DePaul University is home to the Center for Students with Disabilities (CSD), a department that specializes inspecifically meeting the needs of students with learning disabilities and attention deficit disorders. More than a dozen accommodations are offered depending on the student's particular needs. CSD students also have access to a Learning Specialist Clinician for additional academic guidance. East Carolina University (STEPP Program) Greenville, NC The STEPP (Supporting Transition and Education Through Planning and Partnernships) Program offers academic, social, and life-skills help to students with learning disabilities at ECU. It begins with monthly newsletters and a pre-college bootcamp to help students prepare for college before they even begin their first day. Once they start school, participants receive mentoring and advising, a housing assignment within a designated residence hall, independent study courses and a required study hall to help structure their schedule, and guidance developing a professional portfolio to help with getting a job after graduation. Only 10 students are accepted into the program per year, but for those that are, there are no additional fees for being in STEPP. Northeastern University (Learning Disabilities Program) Boston, MA Northeastern is a relatively large university that offers many on-campus resources to its students. Those who are part of the Learning Disabilities Program (LDP) meet twice every week with an LDP specialist to work on their academic and general life skills. This specialist also directs students to other resources that are available on campus, such as subject-specific tutoring. The fee for the LDP is $2,900 per semester. University of Arizona (SALT Center) Tucson, AZ The University of Arizona's Strategic Alternative Learning Techniques (SALT) Center offers fairly comprehensive support to students and is ideal for those who want the atmosphere of a large school. SALT enrollees have weekly meetings with a strategic learning specialist and access to many other services, including the following: Content-specific tutoring Educational tech support Life skills and academic strategies workshops Psychological services Life and ADHD coaching (this is separate from the SALT fee) Lower-division students pay $2,800 per semester, which includes tutoring. Upper-division students pay $1,200 per semester, with tutoring costing an additional $21 an hour. University of Connecticut (Beyond Access Program) Storrs, CT The University of Connecticut offers a few different options for students with learning disabilities. The major support program is the Beyond Access Program (BAP), in which students meet weekly with a trained Strategy Instructor (SI) to develop important skills. The SI focuses on several skill sets, including the following: Time management and organization Study skills Stress management Self-advocacy Memory and concentration Social skills Career prep Health and wellness Reading and writing strategies There are two different program levels: the BAP fee is $1,800 per semester for one SI meeting a week, or $3,600 per semester for three SI meetings a week. University of Denver (Learning Effectiveness Program) Denver, CO The University of Denver's Learning Effectiveness Program (LCP) offers students with learning disabilities academic counseling, subject-specific tutoring, time and organizational management assistance, and special student events. The program fee is $1,350 per quarter. University of Iowa (REACH Program) Iowa City, IA The University of Iowa's Realizing Educational and Career Hopes (REACH) program is a solid option for students who need extra support or who aren’t ready to jump into the college experience just yet. REACH isan educational program in its own right, specialized specifically for students with intellectual, cognitive, and/or learning disabilities. Thistwo-year transition certificate program provides students with a "big 10" university experience and ensures they're supported throughout the educational process. Services offered by the REACH program include the following: Small group instruction Real world opportunities for hands-on learning Special events and support staff Opportunities to participate in UI courses with the assistance of REACH staff Tuition, fees, and expenses for the REACH program come to $28,859 for Iowa residents and $46,069 for non-residents. Smaller Colleges for Students With Learning Disabilities Not everyone gets excited at the prospect of joining a big college campus. If you prefer a more intimate academic environment, these schools might be good fits for you. Classes at small colleges can be really stimulating, intimate experiences (as long as you don't forget to do the reading). Augsburg College (CLASS) Minneapolis, MN CLASS stands for the Center of Learning and Accessible Student Services. Located at Augsburg College, this center is staffed with disability specialists who are trained to provide the following services to students who might need them: Individual support Instruction of learning strategies and compensatory techniques Help with time management and organizational skills Academic advising Housing assistance There doesn't seem to be a fee for these services. Curry College (Program for Advancement of Learning) Milton, MA Curry College's Program for Advancement of Learning (PAL) offers a specialized curriculum for students with learning disabilities and attention deficit disorders. This curriculum mainly focuses on learning strategies and the learning process in general. Students in the program also receive referrals to specialized advisers and technical support. To apply,you have to submit a separate application in addition to Curry's regular college app. The cost is $1,825 a semester for PAL1220, $3,390 a semester for PAL1210, and $3,470 a semester for PAL1190 and PAL1200. Fairleigh Dickinson University (Regional Center for Learning Disabilities) Teaneck, NJ At Fairleigh Dickinson's Regional Center for Learning Disabilities, students can schedule weekly meetings with learning specialists, participate in counseling sessions, get technologicalsupport, and receive priority registration. Best of all, these services are offered at no extra cost to students. Lesley University (Threshold Program) Cambridge, MA Similar to REACH at the University of Iowa, Lesley University's Threshold is a specialty certificate program meant for those who would struggle in a traditional college environment,even with some structured support. Students can choose to study Business Services and/or Early Childhood Development. After completing the program, students have the opportunity to participate in post-grad programs through Lesley University. Tuition fees amount to $22,125 per semester; room and board expenses are an additional $5,430 a semester. Lynn University (Institute for Achievement and Learning) Boca Raton, FL Students who are part of the Institute for Achievement and Learning (IAL) have access to a variety of specialty services, including the following: Academic coaching Assistive technology Diagnostic assessments Tutoring Alternative testing environments All Lynn University students have access to the IAL. Marist College (Learning Support Program) Poughkeepsie, NY Students enrolled in the Learning Support Program work one-on-one with a learning specialist. In meeting with these specialists, students focus on honing the following skills: Writing skills Note-taking skills Organization skills Test-taking strategies Time management There are fees for meeting with learning specialists,but that information isn't publicized on the program's official website. Mercyhurst University (Learning Differences Program) Erie, PA There are two parts to the Learning Differences Program (LDP): the Summer PASS Program, which helps students ease into college life, and the more intensive Academic Advantage Program (AAP), which is designed to provide structured academic support to students throughout the year. The AAP includes the following features: Weekly meetings with an academic counselor Academic advising Subject-specific tutoring Assigned note-takers Priority class registration The AAP costs $2,590 for one academic year, while the Summer PASS Program costs $995. Mitchell College (Bentsen Learning Center) New London, CT Through the Bentsen Learning Center (BLC), students get access to an academic support program meant specifically for students with learning disabilities and attention deficit disorders. There are three tiers of support, allowing the program to be tailored to each student's individual needs. The center offers the following services: Learning strategy instruction Career readiness skill building Content strategy workshops Designated student study areas Referrals to additional campus resources Program fees vary by level of support, ranging from $820 to $3,700 per semester. Schools Dedicated to Students With Learning Disabilities There are a few schools out there that only accept students with learning disabilities. These tend to be smaller colleges and typically offer customizable levels of support and structure. If you're interested in schools that cater exclusively to students with language-based learning disabilities, check out the following colleges. These schools are experienced in helping students with learning disabilities balance their academic, professional, and personal lives. Beacon College Leesburg, FL Beacon College offers associate and bachelor's degrees exclusively to students with learning disabilities and attention deficit disorders. Itson-time graduation rate is 70%, which surpasses the national average graduation rate for students with learning disabilities. The college's support services include a Center for Student Success (with trained learning specialists and tutors), a math lab, and a writing center. Landmark College Putney, VT All of Landmark College isdedicated to helping students who learn differently (i.e., students with learning disabilities, attention deficit disorders, and/or dyslexia). Support services offered here include the following: Academic advising and coaching Centers for academic support Counseling Specialty summer programs, to ease the transition into college What to Do If You're Interested in a Program for Students With Learning Disabilities Think you'd benefit from a supportive program meant for students with learning disabilities? The following tips will help you successfully navigate admissions and beyond. #1: Get More Information Just like anycollege applicant, you should get as much information about these programs as possible to get a better idea of fit and compatibility. Visit campuses, talk to current students, and consider if program offerings would give you the appropriate level of support. #2: Make Note of Additional Applications Many of these schools require students to submit an application to the learning disabilities program in addition to the regular college application. You might also have to submit further documentation, such as diagnostic tests, psychological evaluations, or letters from educators. As a result, it's best to give yourself extra time to complete these applications. #3: Account for Extra Expenses in Your College Budget You can still apply and be eligible forfinancial aid and scholarships, but be aware that enrolling in one of these programs for students with learning disabilities has the potential to add thousands of dollars to your overall college costs each year. What's Next? If you're still thinking through your college budget (and the extra costs that come with learning disability programs), get informed with our guide to college expenses. Don't forget that federal grants and loans can help make up some of the costs of these specialtyprograms. Learn more aboutPellGrants,DirectUnsubsidizedloans, andDirect Subsidized loans. Worried about choosing a major on your college applications? Learn how to navigate the process and make an informed decision. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Friday, February 28, 2020

How Apple Does It (Time Magazine Oct 24 2005) Essay

How Apple Does It (Time Magazine Oct 24 2005) - Essay Example 1 According to the conventional wisdom, described in the article, the Apple is operating like closed mini economy, and thus the company might be doomed as it attempts to do everything at once. Apple produced hardware, operating system for it and programs; traditional approach would allow Apple to license some of its products to other companies that specialize in the development of the products and then access the products produced by the companies mentioned. However in my opinion, the company would really increase the efficiency and competitiveness of its products if it followed more traditional approach as in this case, new innovations and consequently new products might appear much quicker, then the current policy adopted by the company. Huge diversification in one company might erode specialization, which is the cornerstone of innovations; it certainly does mean that differentiation and strategy adopted by Apple might not be successful in some circumstances, as the example of ipod clearly indicates, yet in my opinion it was rather the exception from the rule rather than the result of it. In order to access the effectiveness of the strategy implemented by the company, one should understand the princ... In spite of the fact that this product is just several years old, none of the competitors of Apple so far has been able to provide its customers with identical products of digital music industry. So the price of the Ipod certainly reflects some unique added features related to this product. Another element of competitive advantage strategy is the differentiation focus, when the company attempts to differentiate within the segment of the targeted audience. In this case the company should provide the customers with the product that matches the needs of the customers in the situation when current products of the competitors may not meet the needs of the targeted customers. All this features are present in this case as ipod has many unique features not available in the products of the competitors. Let us evaluate the this product within five forces model designed by Michael Porter that comprises the threat of new competitors, the threat of entry in the market, the threat of substitutes, the threat of bargaining power of suppliers and buyers.3 The threat of competitors. Not strong. Sony has started providing the customers with its new product- mini version of Walkman at the end of 2004. According to the research conducted by Moseberg, journalist from the Wall Street Journal, new mini player of Sony was thinner and wider, thus design was more convenient in use, as well as the battery life of the product was much longer. 4 However, when the Sony products appeared in the market the ipod was still unbeatable in the speed with which MP3 songs could be transferred to the player; whereas it took 2 hours and 13 minutes to transfer the 416 to the player of Sony, it took less than five minutes to

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Applying principles of stakeholder management to analyse Essay

Applying principles of stakeholder management to analyse organisational practice - Essay Example Based on the first principle of Clarkson’s principles of stakeholder management, managers are obliged to acknowledge and monitor the personal concerns of all Facebook’s legitimate stakeholders. Specifically in the case of the general public, it becomes the sole responsibility of the company to protect the privacy and security of its active and inactive users. Upon analyzing the organizational practices of Facebook, this study will not only apply Clarkson’s first principle of stakeholder management to the case of Facebook but also identify and provide concrete evidences on how Facebook continuously violates the main concern of its valuable users. Contextualization of the Issue As a social networking company, Facebook is earning its profit out of its advertising gains. Aside from its advertising business, the company is also earning large sum of revenues out of selling virtual goods like US$1 in exchange for Facebook’s electronic and personalized greeting ca rd, etc. It means that the more active users Facebook could gather each year, the company’s ability to earn more from its investment value increases. Considering the fact that the business model of Facebook is to indirectly earn revenues from its active subscribers, Swartz (2010) revealed that Facebook is not focus on protecting the privacy of its valuable users. ... Furthermore, the use of koobface, malware, and botnet increases the risk wherein Facebook users are at risk of other forms of computer viruses, adware, worms, spyware, crimeware, Trojan, and scareware among others (Damballa, 2010; Skoudis & Zeltser, 2004, p. 2). Since Facebook encourages its users to share their personal date to the public, its valuable users become at risk of becoming a victim of these computer viruses (Sizemore, 2010; Swartz, 2010). Aside from the risk of computer viruses, it is safe to conclude that the private information gathered by this particular social networking site are most likely being use to assist its advertisers in search for a more accurate target market. Without the knowledge of the active Facebook users, advertisers and sellers of various products and services are able to enjoy the benefit of learning more about another person’s online behaviour and personal preferences (Swartz, 2010). In worst cases, Facebook users can be at risk of becoming a victim of cybercrimes like cyber bullying or cyber terrorism (Donahue, 2010) or even increases the risk for security data breeches (Sizemore, 2010). Since there are a lot of negative consequences associated with the use of Facebook, there is a growing scrutiny about Facebook users’ privacy and security. The issue behind Facebook users’ privacy and security is an on-going concern of many people. In fact, Mui (2011) revealed that Facebook is now being considered as a â€Å"worldwide photo identification database†. For these reasons, countries like China, Iran, North Korea, Pakistan, Syria, Vietman, and Uzbekistan has already banned the use of this particular social networking site (Cooper, 2010;

Friday, January 31, 2020

Relation to the Socio-Political Essay Example for Free

Relation to the Socio-Political Essay Comparison and Contrast of the General Tones of the Sumerian and Egyptian Hymns, in Relation to the Socio-Political and Geographic History of these Nations It is interesting to note that the Egyptian and Sumerian civilizations both sprung up beside rivers: Egypt lies in the delta of the Nile while the Sumerian civilization was on the fertile Mesopotamia along the banks of Tigris and Euphrates. It is thus expected that both civilizations revere their river, and associate them with gods, because the rivers prove to be vital to their existence and a channel of life for them. These forces of nature are considered holy and addressed by prayers. Examples of such pleas can be found in both hymns â€Å"A Sumero-Akadian Prayer to Every God† and the â€Å"Hymn to the Nile. † In these prayers, however, we find very different attitudes of the early people towards their gods. In the Sumero-Akadian prayer we will read a tone of sorrow, grief and fear by a troubled soul over his offences with the gods. The introduction fearfully desire for peace with the divinity: â€Å"May the fury of my lords heart be quieted toward me. † Throughout the text we will also find out that the gods are not named, but is rather just sanctified as an existing being that may not be offended. This apparent fear of the divinity may be attributed to the structure of the Mesopotamian civilizations, where the land was divided into different city-states believed to be owned by a deity. The Sumerian state is therefore not a solid state, but is a conglomeration of small states. Consistent fear of invasion made them turn into the divine beings for protection and blessing. As a further note, in the Sumero-Akadian civilizations, the power of government is divided into two: the lugal took care of the military powers and the even more powerful ensi was the supreme religious leader who also controlled â€Å"economic and technological expertise† (Krejci and Krejcova, p. 31). It can therefore be seen that the fear of the gods was the way of the ensi to maintain political control over his dominions. Political and social structure in Egypt proved much different from the Sumerians. The whole of Egypt was controlled by only one ruler – the Pharaohs. This unity gave the Egyptians more control over their surroundings and their country. Early on, the Egyptians had a clear sense of identity (Kemp, p. 25). This control is best exemplified by their ability to time and control the flooding of the Nile. However, geographically, the Egyptians were not as lucky as the Sumerians, as they were surrounded by deserts. This made them consider the Nile as a gift from the gods, a means by which they would live. It is therefore not surprising that the â€Å"Hymn to the Nile† is a joyous song of praise. The overall theme of the hymn is perhaps best stated in the first lines: â€Å"Hail to thee, O Nile! Who manifests thyself over this land, and comes to give life to Egypt!† References Mircea Eliade `From Primitives to Zen`: A SUMERO-AKADIAN PRAYER Ancient History Sourcebook:Hymn to the Nile, c. 2100 BCE Jaroslav Krejci, Anna Krejcova (1990). Before the European Challenge: The Great Civilizations of Asia and the Middle East. SUNY Press. Barry J. Kemp (2006). Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization, 2nd Ed. Routledge

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Windows NT Proposal Essay -- Essays Papers

Windows NT Proposal Migration to Windows NT Proposal Plan As technology advances so should the products and services provided by companies. In every industry, technology is becoming the key success factor to growth and profit. The ability to communicate with people all around the world has created a new marketplace for business. In order to remain competitive, it is important for companies to utilize the most current technology. At ABC Inc., the use of the latest technological tools allows the company to provide first-rate, quality architectural engineering services to its clients. As part of the company's strategic goal to increase profits and clients, the board of directors established an information technology steering committee to look at how the company could improve its' technology. The committee was tasked to make sure the company had the latest available industry computer tools and to make sure all employees were uniform in terms of the technology. One of the most important findings of the committee's research was the fact th at the company and its branches were using varying types of software and hardware systems. The findings also showed that this lack of uniformity caused numerous communication problems not only with the branches and corporate offices, but also the clientele. These findings were reported to senior management. Based on the findings, recently, senior management made the decision to ensure all employees, branch offices and corporate office were working on the same software and hardware systems. Management decided to move the entire company to a Windows NT environment, in order to improve productivity, to create uniformity, to create a more functional network infrastructure and to develop an Intranet and Internet web sites. The Information Technology department (referred to as the "Team") was asked to take a look at the pros and cons of moving to Windows. The Team has prepared the following report based on its research efforts. Business Requirement(s) ABC Inc. is a progressive company based in San Diego, California. Since 1980, the company has offered a full range of architectural engineering services, from planning and analysis to design and implementation. We currently employ over 50 people in our home and branch offices that include Las Vegas and San Francisco. Like many companies that implemented computer... ...ipment. This problem would cause headaches when one network was not in synch with the others. Centralized manageability would increase the stability of the network system. Although Windows NT will be the operating system of choice, some of the company's UNIX system will have to be retained. The UNIX servers provide high-end graphics and geometric functionality so necessary in the architectural engineering field. However, once Windows NT 5.0 arrives with its 64-bit processor, the company will migrate its graphic functions to the NT format. Integrating the UNIX servers into the Windows NT system will be accomplished by using the public domain software known as Samba. Samba allows a UNXI server to "†¦behave similarly to a Windows-based server†¦" allowing clients to access and share Unix applications seamlessly via NT. Communication within our network has much improved with Windows NT. We are now capable of sharing files and data between all offices. Our Fast Ethernet Intranet provides speedy and stable communication transport. Justification {Explain and justify the selected operating system} 1. "Benefits of Migrating to Windows NT" Feb 1998, p. 186, Brian Honan

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Effect of imperialism on the Rwandan genocide Essay

There is a lot of history in a small country like Rwanda. The original inhabitants were the ethnic Twa. By the 10th century, Hutu farmers were established there. Tutsi warriors with cattle arrived after the 14th century. Tutsi formed a monarchy by the 16th century. All tribes shared a common language and culture, and there were no race issues until the 20th century. (4) Germany was the first European country to colonize Rwanda in 1899, administering it indirectly through the existing king. Belgium took control in 1916, during World War I. Belgium received it as a League of Nations mandate in 1919 and continued indirect rule but restructured the system to increase ethnic divisions. (4) The Belgians favored the Tutsi over the Hutu and Twa, which was a big mistake that caused huge problems in the future and lots of racism. (5) In 1946 Rwanda became a UN trust territory administered by Belgium. (5) Pressure rose during the 1950s as Hutu protested against Tutsi for rights and voting. Violence spread quickly after the Hutu sub-chief was attacked by the Tutsi. Many Tutsis died or fled to neighboring countries. Belgian troops intervened and set up a policy reversal, with a Hutu-led government. (4) With democratization going through Africa, monarchy was abolished in 1961 and Rwanda gained complete independence in 1962, as two countries, Rwanda and Burundi. (5) Tutsi exiles continued attacks on Hutu throughout the 60s. The First Republic, led by Hutu, ended with a 1973 rebellion coordinated by the Hutu Minister of Defense, Juvenal Habyarimana. Tutsi revels in Uganda formed the Rwandan Patriotic Front, or the RPF, and invaded Rwanda in 1990. The conflict ended in 1993 with a power-sharing agreement treaty. But the peace was broken again when Habyarimana’s plane was shot down in April 1994. (5) Know one knew whether it was Hutus that shot down the plane, but they were accused nonetheless. â€Å"Hutu politicians opposed to the late president Juvenal Habyarimana were targeted in the first few days after the plane crash, which has yet to be satisfactorily explained. But now the killings seem to be directed purely against Tutsis,† according to Hilsum. (1) This was the end  of the Second Republic and the beginning of a 100-day well-organized genocidal rampage. Hundreds of thousands fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zaire (now the Congo). The RPF fought back and took control on July 4, 1994. Thousands fled from the RPF advance and many died from disease and unsanitary conditions. In 1996 Hutu refugees became targets of Tutsi violence, and Hutu soldiers attacked the Tutsi. Rwanda sent militia to defeat the Zairian troops helping the Hutus. Most refugees were sent back to Rwanda, but some remained to launch guerilla attacks in northwestern Rwanda. (4) Courts were set up for 124,000 people for crimes during the genocide. The first Hutu president was elected in 2000 when the old president resigned. Trials are still going on today, charging people with war crimes during the genocide. Because of the great scars of Rwanda’s history in the last century, Rwanda today has a very weak economy and is very undeveloped industrially. The products are mostly agricultural, and most of the population are subsistence farmers. The main crops consist of coffee and tea. Also grown are bananas, beans, cassava, cattle, pyrethrum, sorghum, and sweet potatoes. The only mining resources are tin and wolframite. A lack of fertile soil limits agricultural expansion. (4) Rwanda only trades with Uganda because of bad relations with other countries. This makes trade very expensive there because of this. (5) Christianity was introduced in Rwanda by missionaries in the early 20th century. Today 65% are Catholic, 9% Protestant, 1% Muslim, and 25% follow indigenous beliefs. Ethnic tribes are still mostly Hutu and Tutsi, which are now peaceful. 90% are Hutu, most of the rest are Tutsi, and only 1% are Twa. The official languages spoken in Rwanda are English, French, and Kinyarwanda, a Bantu language. (4,5) Independence Day is celebrated on July 1. The government consists of the President and Transitional National Assembly of 70 seats. Local elections establish councils responsible for local disputes, minor crime, tax collection, and salaries for teachers and doctors. The country is very crowded and there is lots of disease. (5) Most of the problems in Rwanda in the last century were caused by imperialism. The genocide in Rwanda affected its neighboring countries as well, and thousands of Hutus and Tutsis were also killed in Burundi by similar problems there. The incredible amount of racism and hate in the very heart of Africa was sparked by the colonial structure enforced by Germany and then Belgium. According to Dowden, the Tutsi, making up only about 10% of the population, â€Å"were a kind of feudal cattle-owning aristocracy who lorded it over the Hutu peasants.† Belgians gave the Tutsis a big advantage in education, leading them to have professional jobs. (2) Before the Europeans came there was peace in Africa. But after greedy 19th century European politicians occupied the African continent, enslaving or abusing its people, ethnic conflicts broke out all over Africa, followed by a century of bloodshed. The conflicts and the current problems in Africa could have been prevented if imperialism wouldn’t have existed. There would not have been a genocide during which hundreds of thousands of innocent people were slaughtered over a period of 100 days. According to LaFraniere, â€Å"The Rwanda genocide is considered the worst ethnic killing since the Holocaust. In 100 days, an estimated one in 10 Tutsi in Rwanda were wiped out, along with many moderates among the Hutu, who make up the majority of the population. The efficiency of the killers, who chased down the Tutsi at roadblocks and in the streets with sharpened sticks, nail-studded clubs and grenades, surpassed that of the Nazis, some historians contend.† (3) The financial crisis in Rwanda and the suffering of its people today could have been prevented if it wasn’t for so much hate and carelessness of imperialistic European nations in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Bibliography 1. Hilsum, Lindsey. â€Å"Men mad with killing drown nation in blood†. The Independent. 1 May 1994. 2. Dowden, Richard. â€Å"A wound at the heart of Africa†. The Independent. 11 May 1994. 3. LaFraniere, Sharon. â€Å"3 convicted of genocide in Rwanda Media chiefs guilty of inciting massacre of Tutsi in 1994†. International Herald Tribune. 4 Dec. 2003. 4. World Book Encyclopedia 2003. Vol. 16. 5. Culture Grams 2004.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Definition and Examples of Zimbabwean English

Zimbabwean English is the variety of the English language spoken in the Republic of Zimbabwe, located in southern Africa. English is the primary language used in schools in Zimbabwe, but it is one of the 16 official languages in the country.   Examples and Observations: From Rhodesia to ZimbabweZimbabwe, earlier Southern Rhodesia, became a British colony in 1898. By 1923 it gained a measure of self-government and was part of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland from 1953 to 1963. Like South Africa, Southern Rhodesia had a settled white population, the leaders of whom opposed the notion of one man, one vote. In 1965, the white minority broke away from Britain but its Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) was declared illegal. In 1980, general elections were held and Zimbabwe came into existence.(Loreto Todd and Ian F. Hancock, International English Usage. Routledge, 1986)Influences on  Zimbabwean EnglishRhodesian English is regarded as a fossil, non-productive dialect. Independence as a democratic republic under black majority rule in 1980 changed the social, economic and political conditions in which blacks and whites interacted in Zimbabwe; in this environment, it is appropriate to refer to the prevailing English dialect in the country as Zimbabwean English (ZimE) as it is a productive and changing variety. . . .The principal influences on Rhodesian English lexis are Afrikaans and Bantu (mainly chiShona and isiNdebele). The more informal the situation, the more likely it is is to encounter local expressions.(Susan Fitzmaurice, L1 Rhodesian English. The Lesser-Known Varieties of English, ed. by D. Schreier et al. Cambridge University Press, 2010)Characteristics of  Zimbabwean English[W]hite Zimbabweans perceive that their dialect of English is distinct from other southern African accents. They . . . refer to details of pronunciation and lexis in order to illustrate how their speech differs from British English on the one hand and South African English on the other. For example, informants will refer to the fact that lakker . . . is a Zimbabwean word. Actually, it is a loanword from Afrikaans lekker, nice, but it is pronounced in a specifically Zimbabwean way, namely with a more open front vowel: lakker  [là ¦ kÉ™]  and without a final flapped [r]. Additionally, Zimbabwean English has unique lexical expressions, many of them dating from early colonial days, some adaptations or innovations, some loan translations. For example, the (now quite old-fashioned) approbatory adjective mush or mushy . . . nice may well have arisen out of the persistent misunderstanding of the Shona word musha  home, while shupa (v. and n.) worry, bother, hassle, is a borrowing from Fanagalo, the colonial pidgin used by whites. The verb chaya strike ( Shona tshaya) also occurs in Fanagalo. Thus white Zimbabweans . . . link their dialect to the matter of the identification with place and differentiate themselves from those from neighboring South Africa for instance.(Susan Fitzmaurice, History, Social Meaning, and Identity in the Spoken English of White Zimbabweans.  Developments in English: Expanding Electronic Evidence, ed. by  Irma Taavitsainen  et al. Cambridge University Press, 2015)English in Zimba bweEnglish is the official language of Zimbabwe, and much teaching in schools is also carried out in English, except in the case of the youngest Shomna- and Ndebele-speaking children. . . . The Zimbabwean English of the native anglophone population resembles very closely that of South Africa, but according to Wells (1982) it has never been systematically studied. Native English speakers make up less than 1 per cent of the total population of 11 million.(Peter Trudgill, Lesser-Known Varieties of English. Alternative Histories of English, ed. by R. J. Watts and P. Trudgill. Routledge, 2002) Also Known As: Rhodesian English